Also known as: atmospheric resid, atmospheric residue, reduced crude, long residue, atmospheric reduced crude, topped crude. Atmospheric bottoms is the heaviest of the distillation cuts out of the atmospheric distillation tower. It consists of all of the components of crude oil that have boiling points above about F C.
Refining of crude oils essentially consists of primary separation processes and secondary conversion processes. The petroleum refining process is the separation of the different hydrocarbons present in the crude oil into useful fractions and the conversion of some of the hydrocarbons into products having higher quality performance. Atmospheric and vacuum distillation of crude oils is the main primary separation processes producing various straight runproducts, e.
Fractional distillation is the process by which oil refineries separate crude oil into different, more useful hydrocarbon products based on their relative molecular weights in a distillation tower. This is the first step in the processing of crude oil, and it is considered to be the main separation process as it performs the initial rough separation of the different fuels. Fractions that are separated out include gasolinedieselkeroseneand bitumen.
Crude oil is first processed in a refinery by running it through an Atmospheric Distillation Unit, typically referred to as a Crude Unit, where the crude is split into basic products or cuts based upon particular boiling point ranges of the product. The crude oil is preheated by exchanging heat with some of the hot cuts from the atmospheric distillation column. The desalted crude then proceeds through several more pre-heat exchangers, absorbing heat from the hot cuts off the atmospheric column once more. The crude oil is then routed to a heater where it is heated to a temperature of about 0 to 0 F.
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Norman P. Troubleshooting experiences have shown that, in the crude oil distillation process, a two-stage overhead system is the type of facility that most often suffers from severe corrosion. Changing the point of injection of the neutralizing amine is one of four factors that, used together, can reduce corrosion in these systems.
Continuous distillationa form of distillationis an ongoing separation in which a mixture is continuously without interruption fed into the process and separated fractions are removed continuously as output streams. Distillation is the separation or partial separation of a liquid feed mixture into components or fractions by selective boiling or evaporation and condensation. The process produces at least two output fractions.
Crude oil quality is measured in terms of density light to heavy and sulfur content sweet to sour. API gravity is defined based on density at a temperature of The higher the API gravity, the lighter the crude.
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Mini-Refineries are skid mounted, modular crude oil distillation units CDU which process from 10, tometric tons — 12, BPD of crude oil per year and are capable of producing a variety of finished products including naphtha straight run gasolinekerosene, arctic and summer diesel and fuel oil. A reformer may be added for producing high-octane gasoline. Two or more plants can be installed on a single site allowing the simultaneous processing of more than one type of crude oil; and one plant can still be in operation in the event one plant is down. Traditionally, the petroleum industry has constructed large-scale refineries at centralized locations, supplying them with crude oil and gas condensate via pipeline and transport truck.