Skip to search form Skip to main content. The members of the working group for volume 15 of the IARC Handbook are listed at the end of the article; affiliations are provided in the Supplementary Appendix, available with the full text of this article at NEJM. View PDF.
As I wrote three weeks ago, the state of California is deliberating whether to list coffee as a carcinogen under its Prop 65 statute. This statute requires the posting of warnings alerting the public to the presence of carcinogenic and toxic substances in food, beverages, consumer products, and the environment. The warning being considered stems from the presence of trace levels of acrylamide, a chemical which is produced during roasting and which may cause tumors in animals when administered at very high doses.
Researchers estimated that there will be Those numbers — a marked increase from just six years ago, when cancer diagnoses were estimated at About one in eight men, and one in 11 women, will eventually die of cancer, the report says.
Please take this quick survey to tell us about what happens after you publish a paper. Objective : To determine breast cancer case counts, on a given data set, using both Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results SEER program and International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC multiple primary coding rules and to describe differences, if any, by age at diagnosis, histology, stage at diagnosis, laterality, and grade. Only registries whose data met high quality data standards for the time period studied — and whose permission was obtained were included.
The IARC classifies agents into four risk categories on the basis of the strength of the evidence on whether the substance or agent causes cancer. Group 2A is the second highest category in terms of the level of certainty of the evidence. This is the second time the IARC has evaluated the carcinogenicity of night shift work.
Older age is the main risk factor for cancer. This largely reflects cell DNA damage accumulating over time. Damage can result from biological processes or from exposure to risk factors.
Several large studies, including a review by the U. Preventive Services Task Force in and a study on the causes of death in the United Kingdom inhave questioned the value of screening mammograms. Doctors who question the value of mammograms say that while mammograms do save lives, for each breast cancer death prevented, three to four women are overdiagnosed.
The monograph is the outcome of a weeklong meeting of the Working Group on the Evaluation of Cancer-Preventive Strategies that took place in Lyon, France, March 5—12, The decision to produce a handbook on breast cancer screening was timely for several reasons. First, only a few monographs exist that focus exclusively on breast cancer screening, none of which represent a comprehensive treatment of the subject, and all were published before [ 1 - 4 ]. Second, the value of breast cancer screening recently had been challenged by a Cochrane Review [ 5 ] on screening for breast cancer with mammography, and a number of independent expert groups had been assembled to evaluate that analysis and the authors' provocative conclusions.
More Information. The Handbooks provide a review of the scientific evidence of the cancer-preventive potential of the agents and activities under evaluation. The WHO Classification of Tumours series are authoritative and concise reference books for the histological and molecular classification of tumours.
The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classed alcohol as a Group 1 carcinogen the highest IARC classification for cancers of the mouth, pharynx, larynx, oesophagus, bowel, liver, stomach and breast in women  . There is accumulating evidence that alcohol drinking may also be associated with cancers of the lung pancreas  prostate melanoma   and basal cell carcinoma . Cancer risk is increased because of the ethanol in alcohol, irrespective of the type of alcoholic beverage . Ethanol, the chemical in alcoholic beverages that induces the physical and mental responses experienced with alcohol use, is also a Group 1 carcinogen .